Inductive reasoning begins by detecting patterns and regularities within specific observations and measures. Finally, I will use the findings of the theoretical study and the quantitative study in developing the extended process. Deductive reasoning Deductive reasoning is a basic form of valid reasoning. For deductive approaches the emphasis is generally on causality, whilst for inductive approaches the aim is usually focused on exploring new phenomena or looking at previously researched phenomena from a different perspective. Every science consists of certain laws and principles.
Indeed, facts as part of scientific knowledge have no existence outside such a frame Questions must be asked before answers can be obtained and, in order to make sense, the questions must be part of a logical coordinated attempt to understand social reality as a whole. If a hypothesis is deduced from wrong or inadequate data, the theory will not correspond with facts and will be refuted. If something is found to be true for a category of things, then it is considered to be true for all things in that category in general. By nature, inductive reasoning is more open-ended and exploratory, especially during the early stages. Isaac Newton, for example, famously used inductive reasoning to develop a theory of. All economic laws are based on too many assumptions where there are more scope for committing errors through wrong hypotheses.
However, if predictions are in conflict with actual facts and behaviour of the economy, either the theory is discarded or fresh efforts are made to modify and refine it by collecting more data and processing them. Deductive reasoning, or deduction, starts out with a general statement, or hypothesis, and examines the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion, according to. They inquire into the economic phenomena on the basis of certain assumptions as given below- 1 individuals are selfish in their outlook. Wishing you all the best. It establishes the relationship between the proposition and conclusion.
Induction is done by two forms, viz. This is done in two ways: First, through logical deduction. This approach helps researchers ascertain a hypothesis by using existing theories. For instance, the law of demand stating inverse relationship between price and quantity demanded does not become invalid in view of the fact that both prices and quantities sold of many commodities increase during boom periods. The use of deductive method in deriving economic generalisations requires the use of a high-level competence in logic and theoretical abstraction. Supply and demand analysis, a staple in any introductory economics course, is an example of deductive reasoning because it involves a set of generally accepted principles about demand and supply. This is also referred to as a top down approach or the waterfall approach of reasoning.
Thus, one who uses deductive approach should always keep in mind to what extent the validity of generalisations derived depends on the assumptions made. Since economics is the concern with human behavior, there are problems in making an observation and testing a hypothesis. What is your suggestion on my research topic: use of handset by primary six pupils for games, rather for home works and readings, what is the research approach that will be suitable? The person concludes that the dog tore up the papers because it is the most likely scenario. So the majority of hypotheses remain untested and unverified in economics. In the field of microeconomics, the well-established generalisations relate to the inverse relationship between price and quantity demanded, the direct relation between price and quantity supplied, the tendency of the price of the product to be equal to the marginal cost under conditions of perfect competition, and the tendency for the wages to be equal to the value of marginal product under conditions of perfect competition and several others.
Deductive Reasoning With deductive reasoning, one takes a general theory or idea, tests it, and moves through a sequence of ideas to arrive at a specific conclusion. Incorrect Verification: The verification of theories, generalisations or laws in economics is based on observation. Existing information is dissected to accept or reject the hypothesis in order to achieve the research aims Gill and Johnson, 2010. Inductive and are both approaches that can be used to evaluate inferences. The narrower the problem the better it would be to conduct the enquiry. This synthetic approach is necessitated because social phenomena do not have the repeatability observed in the natural world although I would dare to say that there are many aspects of economic behavior that have remained virtually unchanged for at least all written history, and around the globe. If and because relationships p and q all exist, then this necessarily implies that relationship r exists as well.
But other things seldom remain the same which tend to refute theories. Deductive research works from the more general to the more specific, and inductive research works from more specific observations to more general theories. After analyzing those data, you can make generalizations about the spending habits of the society. Abstract Method: The deductive method is highly abstract and requires great skill in drawing inferences for various premises. As pointed out by Cairnes, The method of deduction is incomparable, when conducted under proper checks, the most powerful instrument of discovery ever wielded by human intelligence. This is also known as an hypothetical method for some of the assumptions may not correspond to actual facts, but very near actual facts which may be used as premise for starting, reasoning and drawing conclusions. But other things seldom remain the same which tend to refute theories.
To be fruitful for inquiry, the assumption must be general. If I want to conduct a research to find those elements in a bank operation. My email Id is: Iam writing my PhD thesis based on this. But after going through the conversation in this page helped me a lot. What is the difference between Inductive and Deductive Research? So, which approach to follow in this case? The inductive method involves the following steps: 1. Deductive means trying to deduce infer conclusions from a theory that is already there. So the hypothesis stands verified.
Thirdly, in view of the limited scope for controlled experimentation in economics, the method of deduction is extremely useful method of constructing economic theories. Just browse any classic economics book from the 18th, 19th and even pre-war 20th century and this becomes obvious. We also allow that this could be a false statement. The narrower the problem the better it would be to conduct the inquiry. The aim of this article is to explore the differences between deductive and inductive approaches to research. We hope this article on the differences between deductive and inductive approaches to research has been useful. The inductive method can at best be used to empirically test the theory or hypothesis as to whether it is consistent with or refuted by facts.
For instance, the classicists assumed in their reasoning that particular conditions prevailing in England of their times were valid universally. Observation: Data are used to make observation about particular facts concerning the problem. He must know the significant variables regarding whose behaviour and interrelationship he wants to derive generalisations. Inductive method Inductive Reasoning adopts statistical and mathematical methods for getting conclusions regarding economic phenomena. It is worth noting that the absence of controlled experiments in economics affects the exactness of economic laws and generalisations. For instance, India and America differ in their factor endowments. There is a degree of uncertainty as we move up as conclusions are based upon premises.