If we take that view, Archytas and Hippocrates should be promoted in this list. Thabit produced important books in philosophy including perhaps the famous mystic work De Imaginibus , medicine, mechanics, astronomy, and especially several mathematical fields: analysis, non-Euclidean geometry, trigonometry, arithmetic, number theory. Chasles was also a historian of mathematics; for example he noted that Euclid had anticipated the method of cross-ratios. He anticipated Poncelet's Principle of Continuity. It is said that the discovery of irrational numbers upset the Pythagoreans so much they tossed Hippasus into the ocean! She is remembered especially for her detailed description of the early hydrometer. When it was found that the solution contained an error, he returned to solitude for a further year before the solution was accepted. Besides that, he entirely re-formulated and simplified Newton's equations of classical mechanics.
When she attended West Virginia State College, several professors recognized her unusual ability and mentored her. Du Bois published The Souls of Black Folk in 1903. The list of contributions to geometry are large, and he has a wide range of theorems bearing his name. Ada was the only legitimate daughter of the famous poet, 'Lord Byron' and his wife, Anne Isabelle Byron from whom he separated a short while after Ada was born. He was first to prove Taylor's Theorem rigorously, and first to prove Fermat's conjecture that every positive integer can be expressed as the sum of k k-gonal numbers for any k. Amalie Emmy Noether 1882 — 1935 When Albert Einstein refers to someone as one of the most creative and significant mathematicians of all time you know they must be something special. Mary was very interested in mathematics however, and tried to study whenever she could.
Williams On separating transcendency bases 1957 M Properties of solutions of nonlinear differential equations 1957 M John Quill Taylor King A statistical analysis of the economic aspects of nineteen Protestant church-related colleges in Texas 1959 M Israel Everett Glover On analytic functions having as singular sets certain closed and bounded sets 1959 M Laurence Raymond Harper Jr Some properties of partially stable algebras 1960 M Charles Gladstone Costley Singular nonlinear integral equation with complex valued kernels of type N 1960 M Beauregard Stubblefield Some compact product spaces which cannot be imbedded in euclidean n-space 1961 M Jesse Paul Clay Proximity and equicontinuity in transformation groups 1961 M Rogers Joseph Newman Capacity and Tchebycheff polynomials 1961 F Some results on the anticenter of a group 1962 F Direct and inverse limits of abstract algebras 1962 M Robert Oreece Abernathy On singular fourth order elliptic partial differential equations 1962 M John Henry Bennett Truncation errors in numerical solutions of the transport equation 1962 M Socrates Walter Saunders Analytic continuation by certain product-summability methods 1962 M Theodore Roosevelt Sykes On a generalization of orthogonal polynomials 1963 M Joseph Battle Imbedding of graphs in orientable 2-manifolds 1963 M Simmie Samuel Blakney Lusin's theorem in metric theory 1963 M Earl Owen Embree A class of linear differential equations involving distributions 1963 M William Andrew McWorter Phi algebras 1964 F Mary Rodriguez Embry Subspaces associated with contractions in Hilbert space 1964 M Alfred D. He invented pharmaceutical methods, perfumes, and distilling of alcohol. Leonardo also re-introduced older Greek ideas like Mersenne numbers and Diophantine equations. He is a key figure in the development of the digital computer. Lovelace was a countess after her marriage, but she preferred to describe herself as an analyst and a metaphysician. Although mathematics was just his hobby Fermat was a government lawyer , Fermat practically founded Number Theory, and also played key roles in the discoveries of Analytic Geometry and Calculus.
Little else is known for certain about his life, but several very important mathematical achievements are credited to him. She is the first Russian woman who was appointed to a full professorship in Northern Europe. He may have invented the 365. He solved Alhazen's Billiard Problem originally posed as a problem in mirror design , a difficult construction which continued to intrigue several great mathematicians including Huygens. He worked out steps to completing a thermonuclear reaction. Germain also became the first woman to win a prize from the Paris Academy of Sciences, for. Archimedes and Newton might be the two best geometers ever, but although each produced ingenious geometric proofs, often they used non-rigorous calculus to discover results, and then devised rigorous geometric proofs for publication.
However Maupertuis, along with others credited with anticipating the idea Fermat, Leibniz, Euler and Lagrange failed to state the full Principle correctly. Regaining his freedom, he wrote many papers, made numerous contributions to geometry; he also made contributions to practical mechanics. He studied at Euclid's school probably after Euclid's death , but his work far surpassed, and even leapfrogged, the works of Euclid. The life of Benjamin Banneker: the first African-American man of science. She even discovered new identities. Cleveland, Ohio: Case Western University.
If everything credited to him was his own work, he was a truly great mathematician. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University. Her parents were both scholarly and encouraged her interest in mathematics. Sofia Kovalevskaya 1850-1891 Kovalevskaya was the first major Russian female mathematician. In 1851, Jacobi died after suffering from a smallpox infection. Eudoxus' work with irrational numbers, infinitesimals and limits eventually inspired masters like Dedekind.
He developed an important new cosmology superior to Ptolemy's and which, though it was not heliocentric, may have inspired Copernicus. Legendre was an outstanding mathematician who did important work in plane and solid geometry, spherical trigonometry, celestial mechanics and other areas of physics, and especially elliptic integrals and number theory. Nicholas Kryffs aka Nikolaus Cusanus was an astronomer and ordained priest. And thus, like many others in this list, contributed to the development of modern mathematical notation. Lagrange said Maclaurin's geometry was as beautiful and ingenious as anything by Archimedes. Butcher An extension of the sum theorem of dimension theory 1953 M Luna I. Joseph-Louis Lagrange born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia was a brilliant man who advanced to become a teen-age Professor shortly after first studying mathematics.
In addition, from this Fibonacci also contributed greatly to the introduction of the Arabic numbering system. In mathematics, he was first to apply the Law of Sines to astronomy, geodesy, and cartography; anticipated the notion of polar coordinates; invented the azimuthal equidistant map projection in common use today, as well as a polyconic method now called the Nicolosi Globular Projection; found trigonometric solutions to polynomial equations; did geometric constructions including angle trisection; and wrote on arithmetic, algebra, and combinatorics as well as plane and spherical trigonometry and geometry. At age 24 he published Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, probably the greatest book of pure mathematics ever. This method involves running hundreds of simulations to estimate the probability of an event. For these reasons, π is often called Archimedes' constant.
But this charge is unfair; Aristotle himself stressed the importance of observation and experimentation, and to be ready to reject old hypotheses and prepare new ones. More importantly, Vieta was certainly the best French mathematician prior to Descartes and Fermat. More important than his work with Fermat's Last Theorem was his Unit Theorem, considered one of the most important theorems of algebraic number theory. He contributed to thermodynamics, dimensional analysis, and developed a partial differential equation describing the diffusion of heat that is today taught in elementary physic lectures. Clairaut, seeing Maclaurin's methods, decided that he too would prove theorems with geometry rather than analysis. She was barely 10 when she delivered a speech in Latin about women's right to be educated to the intellectuals of the time. Some of his designs, including the viola organista, his parachute, and a large single-span bridge, were finally built five centuries later; and worked as intended.
Hidden Figures — Genius has no race. Read the profiles in the March 2018 issue of the , Volume 65, No. The figures she gathered indicated that a lack of sanitation was the primary reason for the high mortality rate. Von Neumann was the first to propose the concept of Mutually Assured Destruction to the United States during the Cold War. She was brought up in well-to-do family and received higher degree of education at the time that was not possible for a majority of French women. He was also a very highly regarded teacher. Ancient Persians and Mayans did have place-value notation with zero symbols, but neither qualify as inventing a base-10 decimal system: Persia used the base-60 Babylonian system; Mayans used base-20.