Ongoing plan — used for continuing situations, problems and activities that are similar and consistent 1 Policy — guidelines for making decision -. During more recent times there have been two competing systems, the capitalist system of the west and the communist system of the east. The selection of leader was an issue and one of the major tasks was to prepare military for the defence as well as the protection of the state. The educational plan must also provide for turnover of employment and continuous adjustment between the educational system and the socio-economic environment. A successful company must have good working relationship with suppliers and customers outside the organization as well.
That is, the relative 01 3. Financial planning is a process that estimates the capital required and determining the company competition. Educational Planning Because of the ubiquitous nature of education and educational planning, several scholars have offered different definitions. Having a plan is a good start but one must also have a backup plan to ensure success. The developing countries and indeed all countries have placed a premium on education because of the persistent belief that formal education holds the key to national development and economic growth. A detailed projection of the demand for human resources is difficult due to the uncertainty of productivity trends.
In what follows, planning refers to the system a country adopts of forecasting its needs and setting up a framework, or alternative frameworks, of national action to meet them. The financial implications of these targets are then considered. Large land agglomerations are destroying the existing city fabric and resulting in more and more gated communities,. Specification of man power availabilities e. This is the first step in your planning process, your setting those goals no matter how simple they may be. Manager should also focus on providing various benefits to the labor such as retirement benefit, bonus, incentives, other various benefits that helps to keep labor secure even though after their. It also ensures that widely accepted long-term goals, such as universal primary education, are approached more objectively.
A sudden policy decision to devaluate the currency or to enter a common market may have more important effects on economic development and social structure than the most detailed ten-year plan. Most of Africa and South America is still developing, but there are major cities that are developed… 5818 Words 24 Pages Program Zamboanga City Course Title : EdAd 205 Educational Planning and Curriculum Development Course Professor : Dr. It can be leveled with a nation as well as internationally. The third method is based on the capital-output ratio approach and might be called the education-output ratio method. This is not always the case, though.
However, national development planning continues to be a dominant policy instrument in many low-income and emerging market economies. While the present may have problems it is better than the past. The second approach, which we may call the manpower approach, is based on the fact that, as we saw earlier, the main link of education with economic development is through the knowledge and skills it produces in the labor force. Any additional change is likely to be for the worse and should therefore be avoided. One of the positions that can help with financial planning is a financial manager, which is a manager that can make sure the resources of the company is being utilize to their best of the company ability.
Clarification of educational objectives ii. Article shared by The developments taking place in and the increasing complexity of the educational system have made educational planning an absolute necessity. The United States has abundant mineral resources including gold, oil and uranium, however, many of the energy supply are dependent on foreign imports. It is also necessary to assure that educational output will grow faster than demand to the degree required to stimulate growth, without creating problems of unemployment. As Well, as long term planning so that larger more distant goals can be reached. The production schedule is a list that facilitates monitoring functions for the day of the event.
This analytical process to educational planning entails preparing and subsequently evaluating a set of decisions or future actions aimed at achieving specific set of goals. This does not fit into the realities of less developed countries of Africa. Diagnosis of present conditions and recent trends iii. This is the traditional approach, and may work satisfactorily in high-income countries, although even in these, concern over flagging rates of growth and ever-increasing competition in export markets is leading to increased emphasis on the contribution of education to technological progress and productive efficiency. Planning allows managers to take action and to plot activities step — by — step. Today there is no argument that capitalism, even if it is not perfect, still is the best economic system to allocate resources, promote economic growth and grant individual liberties. That is, it stresses output from the educational system to meet the man-power needs atsome future date.
Planning clears the ground for establishing goals and objectives; and good planners make tem simple, measurable, feasible and meaningful. A series of linear equations are set up relating the stock of persons who have completed a given level of education, and the number of students at each level, to the aggregate volume of production. While it is the home of the famous Taj Mahal and Himilayas, in it's capital New Delhi lives 21. In all cases the educational development plan must be tailored to the individual student's needs by the evaluation process, and must. Overall, educational planning, either as a part of the National Development Plan or as an independent plan is characterized by: a. Capitalism and its Struggle in the Developing Countries Since the development of civilization, more than 5000 years ago, some type of economic system has always been applied. Manpower or Human Resource Development Approach or Model Planning should consider of human resource in all fields required for country.
It is important to note that the last development plan for Mumbai was prepared in the year 1981 and adopted 13 years later in 1994. This paper went further to make an assessment of the strengthsand weaknesses of each approach. By implication, manpower approach suggests the curbing of the expansion of primary education until the nation is rich enough to expand it. Education is perceived by the approach from two angles, namely: i the social rates of return ii Private rates of return the Social Rates of Return:The social rates of returnThis stresses the benefit to be derived by the state of investing in a particular form ofeducation. The author argues that recent successes in civil society mobilisation could form a good basis to implementing the right to education with the active collaboration and participation of the Indian government. Careers and Career Planning What is Career Planning? It is difficult to measure the benefits, which derives from investing in any type of education. It was non-integrated in the sense that educational institutions were planned autonomously without explicit ties to the evolving needs and trends of the society and the economy at large; and d.